Sourcing of the Wikipedia Article "Allen Welsh Dulles"

Inserted words are in red, transposed words are in green

This is a work in progress . . . .

Additional resources for further checking:

THE LAST HERO: WILD BILL DONOVAN

"Recognized HTML Document" (CIA)

Intrepid Liar

Wikipedia
"Allen Welsh Dulles"

CIA

"Secret Intelligence"

CNN
"Allen Welsh Dulles: CIA Director"

US History.com

(is this a source or a borrower?)

 

Son of a Presbyterian minister and grandson of a United States Secretary of State, Allen Dulles was born on April 7, 1893, in Watertown, New York, and grew up in household that valued public service and where world affairs were a common topic of discussion. He graduated from Princeton University, and in 1916 entered the diplomatic service.

 

Son of a Presbyterian minister and grandson of a secretary of state,

Allen Dulles was born on April 7, 1893, in Watertown, New York, and grew up in household that valued public service and where world affairs were a common topic of discussion. He graduated from Princeton,

               and in 1916 entered the diplomatic service.

 

 

Dulles was serving in Switzerland and was responsible for reviewing and rejecting Lenin's application for a visa to the United States.

 

 

[no attestation shows up...there is an anecdote about Dulles failing, for the sake of a tennis date,  to return Lenin's call regarding L.'s intention to drop out of WWI & make a treaty with Germany, but no mention of a visa application that I can find]

 

In 1926 he earned a law degree from George Washington University and took a job at the New York firm where his brother, John Foster Dulles, was a partner.

 

 

In 1926 he earned a law degree from George Washington University and took a job at the New York firm where his brother, John Foster Dulles, was a partner.

 

 

Dulles was appointed by William J. Donovan to become head of operations in New York for the Coordinator of Information (COI), which was set up in Room 3603 of Rockefeller Center, taking over offices staffed by Britain's MI6. The COI was the precursor to the Office of Strategic Services, renamed in 1942.

 

 

 

During the 1930s Allen Dulles gained much experience in Germany.

 

 

During the 1930s Allen Dulles gained much experience in Germany,

 

 

An early foe of Adolf Hitler,

An early foe of Hitler, Dulles joined the fight against Nazi Germany well before Pearl Harbor.

 

 

 

Dulles was transferred from Britain to Berne, Switzerland for the rest of World War II, and notably was heavily involved in the controversial and secret Operation Sunrise. He is featured in the classic Soviet TV series Seventeen Moments of Spring for his role in that operation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dulles became the station chief in Berne, Switzerland, for the newly formed Office of Strategic Services (the precursor to the CIA)  a logical one. [fragment]

 

Dulles supplied his government with much sensitive information about Nazi Germany.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

which made his selection in 1942 as station chief in Berne, Switzerland, for the newly formed Office of Strategic Services a logical one.

 

Dulles supplied his government with much sensitive information about Nazi Germany.

During World War II Dulles was given the role of station chief of the newly formed Office of Strategic Services (OSS)in Berne, Switzerland, in 1942. The OSS was the predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency

 

Dulles worked on intelligence regarding German plans and activities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dulles established wide contacts with German émigrés, resistance figures, and anti-Nazi intelligence officers (who linked him, through Hans Bernd Gisevius, to the tiny but daring opposition to Hitler in Germany itself). Although Washington barred Dulles from making firm commitments to the plotters of the 20 July 1944 attempt to assassinate Hitler, the conspirators nonetheless gave him reports on developments in Germany, including sketchy but accurate warnings of plans for Hitler’s V-1 and V-2 missiles.

Dulles established wide contacts with German émigrés, resistance figures, and anti-Nazi intelligence officers (who linked him, through Hans Bernd Gisevius, to the tiny but daring opposition to Hitler in Germany itself). Although Washington barred Dulles from making firm commitments to the plotters of the 20 July 1944 attempt to assassinate Hitler, the conspirators nonetheless gave him reports on developments in Germany, including sketchy but accurate warnings of plans for Hitler’s V-1 and V-2 missiles.

 

 

Dulles's career was jump-started by the information provided by Fritz Kolbe, a German diplomat and a foe of the Nazis. Kolbe supplied secret documents regarding active German spies and plans regarding the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter. In 1945, he played a central role in negotiations leading to the unconditional capitulation of German troops in Italy.

 

After the war in Europe, Dulles served for six months as the OSS Berlin station chief. In 1947, Congress created the Central Intelligence Agency. Dulles was closely involved with its development. His translator at this time was Henry Kissinger, who worked for Army Intelligence.

 

 

 

 

Dulles' CIA Operation Paperclip assimilated Nazi scientists into the American establishment by obscuring their histories and short circuiting efforts to bring their true stories to light. The project was led by officers in the United States Army. Although the program officially ended in September 1947, those officers and others carried out a conspiracy until the mid-fifties that bypassed both law and presidential directive to keep Paperclip going. Neither Presidents Truman nor Eisenhower were informed that their instructions were ignored.

 

 

 

 

 

In the 1948 Presidential election, Allen Dulles was Republican nominee Thomas E. Dewey's chief advisor. The Dulles brothers and James Forrestal helped form the Office of Policy Coordination.Under President Eisenhower, Dulles became CIA director.

 

He had persuaded Sullivan & Cromwell to close its Berlin office in 1935. As head of COI’s New York office in the autumn of 1941, Dulles worked with William Stephenson (“Intrepid”) of British Security Coordination and gathered data on the Axis from refugees and from American businessmen and journalists with ties in Europe. His long institutional experience and wide contacts superbly equipped him to run wartime intelligence operations out of neutral Switzerland, and Dulles made the most of his many opportunities in Bern.

 

 

 

 

 

In 1945, he played a central role in negotiations leading to the unconditional capitulation of German troops in Italy.

After the war in Europe, Dulles served for six months as the OSS Berlin station chief. In 1947, Congress created the Central Intelligence Agency. Dulles was closely involved with its development, and in 1951 he was named deputy director. Under President Eisenhower, Dulles became CIA director. As the nation's top spy during the height of the Cold War, Dulles gave equal emphasis to the clandestine collection of information and covert activities. The CIA was instrumental in the overthrow of the governments of Iran (1953) and Guatemala (1954). Dulles saw this kind of activity as an essential part of the struggle against communism, even if it did not always comply with the law. The president agreed. The development of the U-2 spy plane after 1955 greatly enhanced the CIA's ability to monitor Soviet activity. The reputation of the agency and its director declined, however, with the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in April 1961. The new president, John F. Kennedy, held Dulles responsible, and accepted his resignation the following September. Dulles always believed the operation could have succeeded had the president authorized sufficient military support.

Dulles died of influenza, complicated by pneumonia, in Washington, D.C., on January 29, 1969, at age 75.

 

In addition, Dulles was contacted by a German Foreign Ministry official, Fritz Kolbe, who volunteered to report from Berlin. Kolbe’s periodic packets illuminated German foreign policy and military matters, and helped the British spot the German spy “Cicero” working in the household of the British ambassador to Turkey.